Here is the part of the tour where I tell you to get lost.. .  .   .

.   .  . a book!

(*that is the stupidest thing i've ever said*)

Anyway, here there be dragons. 'N'stuff. 'N'joy.


Aptowicz, Cristin O'Keefe. Doctor Mütter's Marvels. Garden City, NY: Avery, 2014.

Bates, A. W. Emblematic Monsters: Unnatural Conceptions and Deformed Births in Early Modern Europe. Amsterdam: Editions Rodopi, 2005.

French, Renée. "Objects from Dr. Chevalier Jackson's Foreign Body Collection." The Ganzfeld 3, Winter 2003: 88-95.

Gould, George M., and Walter L. Pyle. Anomalies and Curiosities of Medicine. New York: The Julian Press, 1956.

Howell, Michael, and Peter Ford. The True History of The Elephant Man. New York: Penguin Books, 1980.

Leroi, Armand Marie. Mutants: On Genetic Variety and the Human Body. New York: Penguin Books, 2003.

Montagu, Ashley. The Elephant Man: A Study In Human Dignity. New York: Ballantine Books, 1971.

Paré, Ambroise. Des monstres et prodiges. Ed. Jean Ceard. Geneva: Droz, 1971.

. On Monsters and Marvels. Ed. Janis L. Pallister. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1982.

Purcell, Rosamond. Special Cases: Natural Anomalies and Historical Monsters. San Francisco: Chronicle Books, 1997.

Quigley, Christine. Modern Mummies: The Preservation of the Human Body in the Twentieth Century. Jefferson: McFarland & Company, 1998.

Stone, Judith. "The Mütter of All Museums." Discover, January 1992: 14-18.

Thijsen, Mirelle. Grotesque: Natural Historical & Formaldehyde Photography. Trans. Michael Gibbs and Edith de Boer. Amsterdam: Fragment, 1989.

Thompson, C. J. S. The History and Lore of Freaks. London: Random House, 1996.

Wilson, Gahan, ed. The Big Book of Freaks. New York: Paradox Press, 1996.

Wynbrandt, James, and Mark D. Ludman. The Encyclopedia of Genetic Disorders and Birth Defects. New York: Facts on File, 1991.


And then there are a few webpages I have neglected to link elsewhere

Freaks @

Formaldehyde babies from Holland @

The Teratology Society

EXTREME BIRTH DEFORMITIES caused by U.S. gov't complacency.

The Mütter Museum
Official Page
@ Roadside America
by Mark Hanford
an article in the Philadelphia Business Journal

And finally, special thanks to James Paterson for featuring my work on Half Empty!